Why Quantum Physics seems absurd?

Quantum Physics, a completely different way to look and understand the universe. We don’t now look at matter, we look at particles, we don’t look at particles, we look at waves, we don’t look at waves, we look at wave-packets.

Established by great physicists Max Planck, Neils Bohr, Schrondinger, deBroglie, Compton, Klein, Dirac, Feynman, Heisenberg, Gordon, David Bohm, Born, Rydberg, Satyendra Nath Bose, Jordon, Ehrenfest, Pauli, Quantum Physics is not any usual model of physics, it is weird, it’s not invented, it is still not complete, but it is the best way to observe the evoluted universe.

A short picture of a short picture of Quantum Physics.

You may heard about, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Entaglement, Uncertainities and may have gave them a innocent face. Because these topics are far beyond Newtonian Physics, but Newtonian Physics is still the best ever known method to observe universe at a big scale.

We all know Quantum Physics is all about particles, wave, their energy level, their uncertainities, their probability, their current, their expections, but we don’t know exactly are these all true or not. It is not possible to conducts some experiments that gives a question mark with unsatisfaction and leads us to loss the determinism. Although we have done very great experiments like Double Slit, the favourite of thousands quantum physicists, Elitzur-Vaidman Bombs and so on.

But the weirdness arrives where we get our statistical interpretation and Born’s rule. I hope you are a quantum physics graduate, it don’t let us to know where and how the particle is doing, if we get to know that wave function get the value at A, next time we get B or C, we don’t know, this is Copenhengen Interpretation.

Actual weirdness arrives when we get to know that one particles from point A to point B have all infinite paths that it takes, that’s means one particle is at Mumbai but at the same time New York, London, Cambridge, Dubai and so on, well this is called Feynman’s Sum over History.

Well there are many weirdness but still many physicist are pioneers of Quantum Physics because it lets physicist to actually see what is not happening or not see what is happening, and that’s a challenge for physicist. We have String Theory, Schrondinger-Newton Approach, Macroscopic Quantum Quantization that is still not proven, and that’s the challenge.

Why Chandrasekhar Limit matters in Astrophysics!

Hey, if you are active in space, then you may know about Black Holes and Dwarfs, then you may heard about Chandrasekhar Limit, well if you don’t then after this reading you will so

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was one of best mind from India, he was a physicist, who figured out what the maximum mass of dwarf and from which mass we can state the object is black hole. (For which he get the Nobel Prize in 1983 and shared with William.A. Fowler.

Chandrasekhar Limit is a barrier which indicates the maximum mass of any stable dwarf star. It means any mass bigger than this will become definite a singularity in near time.

The currently accepted value of limit is 1.4 M☉. Any mass bigger than this is black hole, (it’s very worthy to bet). White Dwarf resist the collapse because of thermal pressure. But when mass becomes bigger thermal pressure reduces, and gravitational collapse is seems likely to happen. But masses less than this barrier is safe, that’s means pluto is safe (1.0004 M).

Theoretically it was reduced from Fermi gas,

{\displaystyle M_{\rm {limit}}={\frac {\omega _{3}^{0}{\sqrt {3\pi }}}{2}}\left({\frac {\hbar c}{G}}\right)^{\frac {3}{2}}{\frac {1}{(\mu _{\text{e}}m_{\text{H}})^{2}}}}

This equation states the limit, but the idea of this blog is simplicity, so we have to stick with best concept without complex equations.

Well if you will talk about the application then look, In April 2003, the Supernova Legacy Survey observed a type Ia supernova, designated SNLS-03D3bb, in a galaxy approximately 4 billion light years away. According to a group of astronomers at the University of Toronto and elsewhere, the observations of this supernova are best explained by assuming that it arose from a white dwarf that grew to twice the mass of the Sun before exploding.

They believe that the star, dubbed the “Champagne Supernova” by University of Oklahoma astronomer David R. Branch, may have been spinning so fast that a centrifugal tendency allowed it to exceed the limit. Alternatively, the supernova may have resulted from the merger of two white dwarfs, so that the limit was only violated momentarily. Nevertheless, they point out that this observation poses a challenge to the use of type Ia supernovae as standard candles. – Credit to Wikipidea Article.

Look at the graph of limit,

#2 | ψ(x,0) is real or imaginary! | Quantum Mechanics Problem | Thursday Physics Problem

Hey Avidians, sorry to post this on Friday, but this problem is related to Quantum Mechanics, so if you are a fan of microscopic nature and physics behind them, then you will be familiar with Schrondinger Wave Equation.

Let’s have a look at the equation,

{\displaystyle i{\frac {d\psi }{dt}}={\hat {\mathcal {H}}}\psi ,}

H is Hamiltonian Operator, if you are very familiar with Hermicity you can absolutely grab the idea behind this equation, Hψ = Eψ, you can make this equation more expandable, but this is not our purpose in this blog.

So Question is you have a plain wave at t = 0 , that’s why ψ(x,0), so this is our wave function, so the problem is that is ψ(x,0) is real or imaginary.

See this will require you to have a good education of waves, probability, superposition and complex number.

You have to put some advance grad mathematics then you can prove how this is real or imaginary, so mathematics of this question depends on you, either you derive this wave function with fourier transformation or your invented mathematics.

You should use independent time equation of Schrondinger Equation, because time is actually 0. You can also take ψ(x,0) as absolute value, indeed you have to.

Let’s look at the quiz rules and submission process.List

  • You have to submit your answer before Wednesday, because on Thursday another problem will launch.
  • You can submit your answer in the comments of this blog or avidianspace@gmail.com
  • Submit your answer in one word, just real or imaginary, but you should clip up you mathematics to my mail id mentioned above.
  • The correct answer and winner name will be featured in my next Thursday Quiz
  • You can’t do multiple answers submission

Well if you haven’t taken my previous quiz, then you can leave from here and work on the mathematics of above question, but you are curious i think, then you can stay to have the answer of #1 question.

You can see the question by Clicking here

Answer of #1

So basically you have been given a picture where you see rainbow on ground. But believe me it’s not rainbow.

So none of any answer was right, because even I have to do a lot of thinking to problem. So if you just given wrong answer don’t worry, it’s very critical problem.

Solution is a glass bowl. Yeah the picture taken when there was sandposting of a building. So refraction is the key physics concept to describe this. Well if you want to have a very clear answer then,

Go to Prof.Walter Lewin Video, By Clicking Here,

But let me say you some point here, angular radius of rainbow is 42° but if you calculate the angular radius of picture you will roughly go with 20-22°. So you have to have basic and good understanding of rainbow first then you can understand this problem.

I will encourage you to go on web and get some lectures on Rainbow, and if you get understanding then you find this problem easy.

Some sources to lecture

  • You can go to Prof.Walter Lewin 8.02 (Lecture 31) or 8.03 (Lecture 22)
  • Or Search Youtube and write Raibows Lectures

So none of any answer were right, so none of any is winner.


Okay so basically work on this problem #2 because if you are a theroatical course citer, it will important for you.

The Successor of Hubble Telescope! James Webb Space Telescope

You may know about Hubble, well a very great soul in astronomers. A telescope named after him, which was launched into low orbit of Earth in 1990 and still in operation.

Hubble constant, Cluster finding, basically for cosmic origins spectrograph, it is in use. But NASA is here with a successor of Hubble Telescope, Claiming a good successor for this telescope.It’s name is James Webb Space Telescope. Well facts says that it has big mirror than of Hubble’s. A wide range of wavelength capturing with (0.6-27 μm) which is of course helpful for observing redshifts.

Well it is composed of 18 hexagonal mirror segments which combine to create a 6.5-meter diameter mirror. It is a collaboration of NASA (American Space Agency), ESA (European Space Agency) And Canadian Space Agency.

James Webb Telescope

For Fact, Hubble was contribution of NASA, ESA and Space Telescope Science Institute, another fact James Webb is in delay for 12 years. And is scheduled for 30 March 2021.

It claims that the tennis-court-sized James Webb Space Telescope will be able to see seven times further than the Hubble Space Telescope, capturing more concise pictures of the deep universe.

If we estimate cost then facts claims that it is $10 Billion. Well that’s a good price, if you know money value. Well it is finally fully assembled, well we can say that Engineer and Scientist have given their full work for this thing that’s why it took countless hours to ready this.

“The engineering team has accomplished a huge step forward and soon we will be able to see incredible new views of our amazing Universe.”
(Note, I don’t know what is the source for this comment)

Well let me first clear your misconception here, which i also had, that it’s going to replace Hubble?

No of course not, it is an upgrade, while Hubble captures optical and ultraviolet wavelengths, James Webb will capture the universe in infrared.

SpaceCraft Bus Model

Now current status is all parts have been integrated but wires work is in process.

Tell me about your comment on “How it will help Science”

Want More Information !

#1 | Identify This Phenomena | Thursday Physics Problem


Hello, Hope You are loving Physics, because Physics Works.

In this blog I am going to start something interesting for those who are solution finder. Ohh I think we should begin this without any boring writing.


As this is phenomena finding question, you have to answer what the exactly thing and physics is happening here. I will show you a picture which you can see when you will scroll. So let’s first see the image.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is ring_lewin.jpg
Picture taken by Walter Lewin. Featured on apod.nasa.gov

Let’s see what the question is, so basically this is a picture by Prof. Walter Lewin taken in MIT ground, notice a ring of some rainbowish color and bright light in middle. So you have to say what exactly was going there, you have to name this phenomena. Just see the image and respond your mind. Well this is tough one.

Well this is of 13 September 2004 image, but that’s not the matter.


Let’s look at the quiz rules and submission process.List

  • You have to submit your answer before Wednesday, because on Thursday another problem will launch.
  • You can submit your answer in the comments of this blog or avidianspace@gmail.com
  • You have to submit your answer in words not numerically
  • The correct answer and winner name will be featured in my next Thursday Quiz
  • You can’t do multiple answers submission

Try to answer in less than 25 words, of course you can name this in one word.

See you Sunday

Gravitational Force and Graviton vs Electromagnetic Force and Photon

We will cover up two of four forces of universe, both classically and quantum description.

The four forces are :

  1. Gravitational Force
  2. Electromagnetic Force
  3. Strong Nuclear Force
  4. Weak Nuclear Force

The first one is gravitational force. This force is universal and attractive. This is weakest force as compare to other three forces. But the evolution of universe is only possible because this force. The attraction between heavy bodies is just possible because this, otherwise imagine a floating universe that is likely to be ridiculous. But this force is long range as compare to others.

If we look at gravitation force with the view of quantum mechanics, we can say gravitational force is carried by the graviton particle, however it is not yet proved. This particle has spin 2 and has no mass of it own. This is a virtual particle that carry force, because it has not mass it is possible to prove that it is long ranging force. Exchangeable force between graviton results in this attractive force.

However this graviton theory is yet to prove.


The second one is electromagnetic force, which was the result of combination of electric field and magnetic field by Maxwell. This force is for electrical charges particles like electron. It is a million million million million million million million times bigger than gravitational force.

The basics are same charge repel each other and opposite charges attract each other with electromagnetic force. Quantum View of this, the particle which carry this force photon, a long research on this was officially by Max Plank, Einstein and many more.

This particles are massless of spin 1. These are virtual particles which carry these force, however this is very strong but don’t have any specific role in evolution of universe.


Well that’s of it, the another two will be discussed in next blog.

Solar Reflector Satellites Vs Artificial Sun. Which is good for Mars?

It’s nice to hear about nuclear weapons and nuclear science. And if you don’t about new idea of using nuclear weapons in Science, which I will discuss here, then the question is “Where are You?”

For the members who don’t know about Elon Musk new insane idea (Although he was not the first man to discuss) of nuking mars. Let me first introduce it to you.

Credit Mirror.Co.Uk

Mars has glacial temperature, it is about – 80 Fahrenheit (-62 Celsius), which is impossible for human living. That’s mean our dream to settle up in Mars gets a obstacle of temperature. So basically first of all we have to physically warm that area, to make living there we have to heat up that area. Elon Musk and SpaceX who have their goal to set up humans civilization on Mars, announced to nuke mars.

Practically this term means using the nuclear fusion explosions to normalize or warm the atmosphere. Aftermath of this going to create a lot of radiation and heat on mars (Probably by creating a source energy). It would not complete the problem however it will going to normalize a little bit of cold.

For that we need a big amount of fuel and carrying fuel from Earth is going to little costly. And after all nuking mars seems to be a insane idea.

The Change of Plan

On Tuesday, Elon Musk again tweeted about Mars,

We should also see what he was exactly saying about ‘nuking mars’,

You can see the exact meaning of that words, that it was not storming or bombarding of bombs on mars rather than creating a artificial suns that would produce some heat to mars.

By Elon’s tweets we can see that the plan has changed, now the idea is of placing thousand of solar reflector satellites to warm mars rather than creating sun.

Solar Reflector Satellites is like a solar mirror which first collect the energy and then reflect to a particular target. That will help mars to get much more radiation and heat from outer space and to become a place of us.

Now it seems some reasonable and some steady idea that is good for mars as well as for us. Now challenge is for us to normalize the space of mars and Elon’s idea is a good step for Mars and Us!

5 Astrophysics Book recommendation for Beginners

It’s third Sunday of the month and it’s time for some different taste. If you are a keen follower of science and also a book worm, then congratulations this blog is going to live by you.


A Brief History of Time

Stephen Hawking

The First one is A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking, a famous physicist known for his work on black hole and universe radiation. This book is all about the universe from the Big Bang to the Black Holes, if you want to know universe, dimensions from zero level, then this is for you. This is also a that famous book that has already studied by millions. If you are a aspiring engineer or a aspiring scientist, then must buy this book.

It was first published in 1988. Hawking wrote the book for non-specialist readers with no prior knowledge of scientific theories. It means any beginners that is looking for better future or those who have interest in Physics can read this book.

If you want this book then click on below link (It will redirect you to amazon page)

Buy (Indian Version)

Buy (US Version)


The First Three Minutes

Steven Weinberg

The First Three Minutes by Steven Weinberg is specially for those who are excited to know about what was happening and what happened after Big Bang. In his book Steven placed the scientific facts about universe, how it created, what is dark matter and many more topic covered by him.

It was published in 1977. And gives a Modern View of the Origin of the Universe is a book by American physicist Steven Weinberg.

If you want this book then click on below link (It will redirect you to amazon page)

Buy (Indian Version)

Buy (US Version)


The Theory of Everything

Stephen Hawking

Another one by Stephen Hawking that is on the origin and fate of universe, in which Sir Hawking demonstrated the ideas of universe, the expanding universe, the friedman models, black holes and thermodynamics.

Again this can easily read by beginners. It was published in 2002. In this book you will also get ideas of different arrows of time.

If you want this book then click on below link (It will redirect you to amazon page)

Buy (Indian Version)

Buy (US Version)


Astrophysics for People in a Hurry

Neil deGrasse Tyson

Astrophysics for People in a Hurry is a 2017 popular science novel by Neil deGrasse Tyson, centering around a number of basic questions about the universe. 

This is also a excellent book that can be read by those avidians who have thousand of questions in minds about universe.

This will not going to answer your questions but can be give you a better and a best explanation of universe.

If you want this book then click on below link (It will redirect you to amazon page)

Buy (Indian Version)

Buy (US Version)


The Grand Design

Stephen Hawking

The Grand design again by Stephen Hawking but this time with co-author Leonard Mlodinow.

The book examines the history of scientific knowledge about the universe and explains 11 dimension M-theory. You will also get a little bit idea of string theory.

Well of course beginner can read this book, well in my opinion you should at least one time read this book you will get some ultimate science vibes. You can also get the combo pack of The Grand Design and A Brief History of Time by Clicking Here.

If you want this book then click on below link (It will redirect you to amazon page)

Buy (Indian Version)

Buy (US Version)


Well that was my top 5 books suggestions for those beginners who are ready to put their feet on science field with enthusiasm, i hope you enjoyed. All links are linked to their individual section you can buy by clicking.

Unification of Quantum World and General Relativity. String Theory Possible or not. String Theory Predictions.

Unified Theory that was the main aim of Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking and many more physicist. But now we have a theory that unifies the two pillars of Physics that are General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory, although for this matter physics avids are distributed between one who support this theory and another who reject this.

String Theory prediction for particle physics. Fig 1

Image Credit Engineer Physics

History

For that first let go to history of dimensions and unification. In 1907, a famous physicist was working on the one pillar of physics that was Theory of Relativity.

Till that Minkowsi’s four dimensional world was like a Mr.Ghost, I mean to say that Minkowski’s paper on 4D space was not taken serious until General Theory bumped the physics.

The history began from the point when three space co-ordinates were replaced by four space-time co-ordinates by Albert in which he added time as a precious co-ordinate. Well that is relativity, not to be covered in this blog.

Gravity is nothing but just a space-time distortion

Albert Einstein

Let’s understand this concept

Space-Time Distortion results Gravity

Fig 2

In fig 2 imagine a big tarpaulin in which a object is placed then the net figure is going to to be analog to this figure. That’s distortion and when something is placed near that object that second object starts to revolve around the first one and that is gravity

Well then another famous physicists that were Theodar Kaluza and Oskar Klein get to their work on fifth dimensional space and time but they said that this particular dimension that were so called fifth dimension are so microscopic that we can’t see, according to their reasoning that scale will be of one per tenth exponentially tending to thirty three power (10^-33 m). But in the real life it failed. And after that dimensions and pillars unification was not taken serious.


String Theory Entry

Well I am assuming that you have some practical knowledge of particle physics.

Then a lot of decades passed but not a single debate on hidden dimensions. But physicist like Susskind, Gabriele Veneziano, Brian Greene, Michio Kaku and many more young physicist introduced String Theory, the theory which seems like impossible at first sight but can be possible in another manner.

Fig 3 by Coloring Home

Well look at the image, if i would say you that how this is made?

Then your answer will be like it is made of atoms. Well if i ask you to give me more precise answer then you would like it is made of neutron, proton and electron. More precise will be like it is made of quarks, but from this point modern physics got damaged. But particle physics and quantum theory says there is another thing present there is quarks and that is membrane or partial membrane like structures which vibrates and produce force. That is the string force.

String Energy

Fig 4 by Futurism

Well that’s how it looks, the string force, look at the figure. This string like structure in millions of number made a thing.

Well now your question will what is the relation between dimensions and string theory? Well the mathematical equation of string theory says that this theory can’t imply on 3D Space not in 4D. Neither in 5D Space nor in 6D, it will work in 10 dimensional Space and 1 dimension of time. That’s strange right?

Conflict and Problem

Well the conflict starts from there when some pioneers of string theory stated that 11 dimensional space-time space is possible. Well Kaluza-Klein said that dimensions are of two types, the first that is superior that’s mean that are visible to our eyes but second types of dimensions are of microscopic scale, we can’t see them with naked eyes. Well that was included in Kaluza-Klein Theory.

One group said that it is not possible that there are hundreds of dimensions and by this theory it was not possible to say that in 3D or 4D world is made of string theory.

Second group said that it is possible that there may be more than twelve dimensions and believes that unification of general relativity and quantum theory is possible by this.

String Theory unifies the two very important theories of universe. But the problem with this theory is that we can’t say that where the dimensions exactly located because of their size and visibility. We can’t define the force that present in quarks. However a lot of researches are going on and eventually we can find the other dimensions too.


I think that String Theory is possible because of it’s naturality and perfection to combine the all four forces that are available in this space. My point is that eleven dimensional world is possible because the thing that is one dimension for you can be three dimension for another microscopic creature, all other dimensions are too complex that our technological advancement can’t even find the hidden dimensions

Aayush

The Dot Product. Use of this in maxwell’s equations.Vector Multiplication S01 B02

Dot product which seems like ‘⋅’ this and n normal vector which have two triangle side type figure in it’s head, so what exactly this means, what is the application of this small mathematical operators. If these are your questions then you are on the right place, Hey Avidian Let’s Start.


In our previous session of this series that was about surface integral, electric field and electric field lines, we were examining Maxwell’s First Equation. In this blog we will continue to dot product.

But if you haven’t read out my previous session of this series in which i will explains whole maxwell equations that will confined into a series. Must Watch Previous Session by Clicking Here.


The Dot Product

So if you have seen the first maxwell equation or second one you will come across to dot product, to know each notation of maxwell’s equation Click Here

The dot product there is for multiplication of electric field and normal vector (Don’t Worry, next section is about normal vector). Basically it is a special multiplication between vectors. The circle between the Electric field and nth normal vector represents dot product in gauss law.

You can compute this if you have basic knowledge of Cartesian Components :

Vector A  ⋅  Vector B = AxBx + AyBy + AzBz                          Eq 2.1
Vector A  ⋅  Vector B = |A||B| cos θ                                             Eq 2.2

If you know angle between the vectors then equation 2.2 will come out. In equation 2.2 A and B represnts their magnitude and after multiplication it becomes scalar.

Fig 2.1

If you will follow fig 2.1 then you will have a clear concept. Let A and B are two vector of a particular strength. And θ is the angle between them, then if we will multiply A and B, because these are vectors that’s why it will follow some important procedure.

Then A ⋅ B = |A||B| cos θ ,

If you got the point then it is nothing but just the projection of A onto B is |A|cos θ and multiplying B to |A|cos θ that’s give us the following result which is |A||B|cos θ .


I hope you got that how to multiply vectors by dot product by just projecting to another one then multiply by another one.

The use of dot product will clear if you will understand nth normal vector, that we will cover in next session, you can check out schedule for this series that is especially for beginners by clicking here.


Questions Section

Try out to solve E ⋅ n, where E and n are two different vector quantities.


Previous Question Answer

Electric Field for point charge = E = 1/4piε0*q/r*r unit ( r is distance from the center)

Which i have already discussed in previous section

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